Low Power Densities of renewable energy.
If renewable energy sources were to satisfy significant shares (15-30%) of national demand for fuel and electricity, then their low power densities would translate into very large space requirements – and they would add up to realistically large land claims if they were to supply major shares of the global energy demand. Energy is consumed in urban and industrial areas at increasingly high-power densities. The mismatch between the inherently low power densities of renewables flows and relatively high-power densities of modern final energy uses means that the renewable systems will require a profound spatial restructuring with major environmental and socioeconomic consequences.
Solar requires permanent occupation of vast areas that block or reflect normal sunlight adapting local atmosphere or ground conditions.
Wind turbines can affect birds and other wildlife cannot co-exist with the technology.
Hydro-Dames have cause drastic negative alteration to the local environments, human life and wildlife.
Mass adoption of renewable energy would thus necessitate a fundamental reshaping of modern energy infrastructure, however these discussed realities complicate efficient commercial utilization.